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History of Cornell
President WHITE in his inaugural address had said that there were two permeating or crowning ideas which must enter into the work of the university in all its parts, "first, the need of labor and sacrifice in developing the individual man in all his nature and in all his powers, as a being intellectual, moral and religious. The second of these permeating ideas is that of bringing the powers of the man thus developed to bear upon society. In a republic like this, the way in which this is most generally done is by speech. A second mode of bringing thought to bear upon society is by the press. Its power is well-known, but its legitimate power among us might be made greater and its illegitimate power less. I think that more and more the university should have the wants of the `fourth estate' in view. We should, to meet its wants, provide ample instruction in history, in political science, in social science and in the modern literatures." He had proposed to make much of scientific study. After speaking of the value of scientific study he said: "We believe that it will make the students strong for study in language and literature; but while we would give precision and strength to the mind in these ways, we would give ample opportunity for those classes of study which give breadth to the mind, and which directly fit the students for dealing with state problems and world problems. In this view historical studies and studies in social and political science will hold an honored place, but these studies will not be pursued in the interest of any party. On points where honesty and earnest men differ, I trust we may have courses of lectures presenting both sides. I would have both the great schools in political economy represented here by their ablest lecturers." The crowning ideas here indicated were worthy of the man and the occasion. They were fitted to express the double aim of a great national university, and they will remain as a noble tribute to him who uttered them. Similar views were contained in the plan of organization two years before. He emphasized the importance of a department of jurisprudence, political and social science and history, and said: "We believe that the State and Nation are constantly injured by their chosen servants, who lack the simplest rudiments of knowledge, which such a department could supply. No one can stand in any legislative position and not be struck with the frequent want in men otherwise strong and keen of the simplest knowledge of principles essential to public welfare. Of technical knowledge of law and of practical acquaintance with business, the supply is always plentiful; but it is very common that in deciding great public questions, exploded errors in political and social science are revamped, fundamental principles of law disregarded and the plainest teachings of history ignored. In any republic, and especially in this, the most frequent ambition among young men will be to rise to positions in the public service, and the committee think it well at least to attempt to provide a department in view of these wants. . . The main stock, in political economy and history of most of our educated public men is what they learned before they studied their professions. Many an absurdity, uncorrected at college, has been wrought in the constitutions the statutes of our great Commonwealth; and when we consider that constitution-making for new states and old is to be the great work in this country, of this and succeeding generations, surely we do well to attempt more thorough instruction of those on whom the work is likely to fall." The young president in these words exalted his own favorite studies, but they illustrate besides his personal interests in all political and social questions which concern the state and society-an interest so profound that it has led him, in the studies of his later years, to devote more attention to questions of sociology than to the earlier historical subjects, to which he was devoted.
In the organization of the Department of History, President WHITE was made professor of history, and William Channing RUSSEL, associate professor of history. Professor Goldwin SMITH, who had purposed to come to the United States to study its political institutions, with the intention of residing in some university town, had been won for this university by President WHITE, during his trip to Europe in the summer of 1868. Professor WILSON lectured on the philosophy of history, the history of philosophy and also upon political economy, in addition to his distinctive field of philosophy. Professor SMITH's name appeared in the first general announcement as non-resident professor of history. In the first catalogue he appears as professor of English and constitutional history. In the second catalogue, which was issued in the same year (1868-9), he appears as non-resident professor of English history. Professor SMITH brought to the university not only the ripest scholarship, but an unusual sympathy with the aims of a new institution. He was willing to see it tested by the demands of this country and shaped by national needs. In a letter expressing his desire to be present at the opening, he said: "You say, you wish I could be with you, so I do, because the occasion will be one of the deepest interest; but you would not persuade me to give you any advice. I know too well the difference between the old and the new, world; at least the only advice I should give you would be, without ignoring the educational experience of Europe, to act quite independently of it, and to remain uninfluenced either in the way of imitation or antagonism by our educational institutions or ideas. The question of academic education on this side of the water is mixed up with historical accidents and with political struggles, to which on your side there are happily no counterparts. . . . What I would say is, adapt your practical education, which must be the basis of the whole, to the practical needs of American life, and for the general culture, take those subjects which are most important and interesting to the citizen and the man. Whatever part may be assigned to my subject in the course of general culture, I will do what I can to meet the wishes of the authorities of the university without exaggerating the value of the subject or unduly extending its sphere."
Professor SMITH's contribution to the study of history in this university possessed a value which cannot be overestimated. During the first years of the history of the university he lectured usually twice a week for two terms in a year. He delivered lectures upon the general and constitutional history of England. It is perhaps not too much to say that, at that time, no such lectures upon history had ever been delivered in this country. Professor SMITH is a brilliant word painter, with unsurpassed power of grouping the essential , facts relating to a given period or character, so as to leave a clear and vivid impression upon the mind. A character was mirrored in a sentence; the entire philosophy of a period was compressed into one terse picturesque statement. Associated with all, was a lofty moral judgment presiding over the acts of nations and of individuals, meting out with rigorous truthfulness, a nation's falsity to its ideals, or the fatal weakness of some great character. This inflexible moral standard pervaded his judgments, as it has pervaded his attitude toward every living question which has affected this nation since his residence among us. Professor SMITH was in sympathy with American institutions. He regarded this republican government as the noblest and grandest achievement of the human race, and its struggle for freedom and liberty as the noblest struggle, demanding sympathy, admiration and recognition. When we consider that Professor SMITH was an Englishman, who had only once before visited America, we must regard his thorough identification with the university, and with all its interests, as one of the most valuable gifts in its history. Soon after his arrival, finding how imperfect was the equipment for literary and historical study, he sent to England for his own private library, consisting of 3,400 volumes, the choice and valued books of his university life and of silent study, and presented them to the university. In the following year he gave $2,500 additional for the purchase of works in history. Thus he signalized his devotion to a new university in a land distant from his own.
Professor DWIGHT of the Columbia Law School delivered yearly for four years a course of lectures on constitutional law. It is said that the term "College of History and Political Science" appeared first in this country in the second catalogue issued by the university, for 1868-9. Professor DWIGHT whose work as a jurist and lecturer ranks high in American legal education, delivered a systematic course of lectures, didactic and expository in character, as befitted the subject, which made them distinguished for their practical value among the early lectures of non-resident professors. The historical and political sciences were taught chiefly through lectures, but in early medieval history there were regular class exercises, the text book being "Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." The lectures upon history were so arranged as to form a chronological sequence, ancient history being followed by the early medieval period, that by medieval and later modern history, and that again by the history of England and the constitutional history of the United States. The historical work as announced consisted of: 1. A course of lectures on ancient and early modern history by Professor RUSSEL; 2. Modern history in general, and the philosophy of modern history by President WHITE; 3. The general and constitutional history of England by Professor Goldwin SMITH; 4. General history and the philosophy of history by Professor WILSON; 5. American constitutional history by Professor DWIGHT; 6. Political economy by Professor WILSON. It was announced that the lectures of the resident professors extended through each trimester, while those of Professor DWIGHT, which were twelve in number, were given in the spring term.
In those early days there was a fair collection of mural charts, photographic views, portraits, casts and diagrams, including historical wall maps, and maps in physical geography. President WHITE had issued for the use of his classes in Michigan University, outlines of a course of lectures in history, and, also, analyses of lectures on the greater states of continental Europe. In choice of subjects, President WHITE preferred to discuss periods and individual men as representative of movements, rather than the orderly sequence of political events. His lectures were devoted, save, perhaps, in the periods of the history of the Reformation and the history of the French Revolution, primarily to the history of culture. He had prepared elaborate studies of the lives of great artists, and he dwelt with especial fondness and interest upon the history of art as an expression of the intellectual life. He reviewed naturally the history of the church during the period of the middle ages, and in its later influence upon the political life of Europe. He studied the influence of the founders of the great religious orders, but devoted especial attention at that time, and later; to what may be called studies in abnormal opinions. He thus prepared an elaborate course of lectures upon the history of torture and witchcraft. His later writings have embodied much that is curious and abnormal in the history of individual opinion, and especially isolated views of theologians-almost the sole scholars of the time-who did not possess a knowledge of the discoveries of modern science, but who opposed numerous theories of the physical universe, from quaint and fanciful reasons, often derived from theological speculation. Physical science did not at that time exist. There were chaotic visions of some of the results of modern science, not rising to the dignity of consistency, nor established by induction, but which, being unsupported, were often as much the product of the fancy as the opinions to which they were opposed. They could not challenge universal faith, for they bad no foundation, save in the dim, pathetic, and often beautiful dream of some solitary scholar. To withhold acceptance from unestablished truth, where faith may be opposed to unconfirmed science, is as much a duty as the challenge which conservative science gives to unsubstantiated scientific theory.
Few lecturers in the university were so interesting as President WHITE. While positive and aggressive in opinion, and pungent in statement, he always awakened the interest of those who heard him, and inspired them to an interest in the study of history. They began to read, and never lost their enthusiasm for the subject. Mr. WHITE always illustrated the bearing of history upon the solution of questions of modern politics and social science. "We find a bold and vivid treatment of such subjects as the fall of the Roman Empire; the feudal system; the crusades; the rise of cities; Mohammedanism; chivalry; monachism; the development of Papal power; the development of commerce; Christian clearing up of Europe; the rise of institutions of learning; growth of literature, science and law; the laboring classes in the middle ages; cathedral builders and medieval sculptors; the revival of learning; revival of art; Erasmus; Luther and the reformation in Germany; Luther's character, writings and influence; Ulrich von Hutten; Charles the Fifth; Charles the First; the reformation in the Romanic countries; the Thirty Years' War. Mr. WHITE's special courses embraced "The State Life of Modern Europe." He prepared thirty-seven special lectures upon France, six upon Italy, three upon Spain, four upon Austria, six upon the Netherlands, five upon Prussia; five upon Russia, two upon Poland, and three upon the Turkish power. In this great field of modern historical politics, France was evidently his first choice, and in this special field the French revolution was clearly the supreme attraction." When we review these striking and suggestive lectures by President WHITE upon French history, we can only regret that these lectures, carefully elaborated, might not have been published, and that this field, which was so attractive to him, might not have retained his permanent attention, the value of which, in the study of modern history and in the instructive lessons which it presents, far surpasses in importance Mr. WHITE's later specialized field, in which his time has been spent in collecting a vast museum of isolated opinions from unenlightened ages, when no science existed, and contrasting them with the views of modern science. Professor William Charming RUSSEL's work was confined at first to medieval and modern history. While closely uniting the study of text books with lectures, he also embodied one feature of the modern seminary plan by occasionally requiring essays upon certain subjects studied. These essays did not have the character of original investigations, but rather a systematic presentation by the student of the main facts bearing upon a given question. Later, Professor RUSSEL assumed systematic instruction in American history, which was continued as long as he remained connected with the university. In 1878, a two years' course in history and political science went into operation, which continued for three years. It included most of the instruction in history which was given in the university, and involved few requirements for admission save the ordinary examinations and four books of Caesar. In 1881 this course was extended to four years. Students who had completed the first two years of study in arts, literature, or philosophy, might be admitted to full standing as juniors in the course in History and Political Science, on passing a satisfactory examination in the history required in the first two years of this course. The first two years in this enlarged course were devoted to the languages, and to elementary mathematics and history.
Upon the resignation of Professor RUSSEL in 1881, Professor Moses Coit TYLER, of the University of Michigan, was elected to the vacant chair of history in Cornell University. After accepting the position, he was permitted, at his own request, to devote himself to instruction in the field of American history exclusively. As early as the year 1868, President WHITE had suggested the establishment of a chair of American history as one of the necessities in the future education of this country, and in his report to the trustees of the university for 1871-2, he had said: "As regards history, it is not known that any institution in the country has so extended a course, but there is a needed addition here, and I hope at an early date to see the history of our country fairly and fully treated. It is a curious fact and one not very creditable to our nation that at present if any person wishes to hear a full and thorough course of lectures on the history of this country, he must go to Paris or Berlin for it. That the subject can be made interesting is shown by the crowds who flocked to the lecture rooms of Neumann, the German, or Laboulaye, the Frenchman. That it is important needs no proof. We ought soon to have a series of lectures, with judicial fairness going over the great periods of our history, doing justice to all parties and being unduly enthralled by none. My plan would be to take four or five thoughtful men and assign to each a period, say to the first, the colonial period; to the second, the period of the Revolution; to the third, the period from the Revolution to the war of 1812; to the fourth, the period extending from the war of 1812 to the beginning of our Civil war. I believe that such a course well prepared would be a powerful instrumentality in sending out from this institution a great body of men above the level of mere partisanship and be yond reach of corruption." On September 22, 1871, George Washington GREENE was appointed non-resident professor of American history for one term. Professor GREENE had resided for many years abroad. In his first trip to Europe he had met by accident at an inn in southern France Mr. Henry W. Longfellow, and the friendship then formed grew with the succeeding years of their lives. Mr. GREENE had made an exhaustive study of the period of American history at the close of the last century, for the preparation of an elaborate life of his grandfather, General Nathaniel GREENE, one of the bravest soldiers of the Revolutionary war. Mr. GREENE was a man of gentle spirit and delightful personality, full of reminiscences of his varied experiences, and of the famous men with whom he had been associated abroad, but of delicate health. His lectures were read quietly from manuscript. They were delightfully written but lacked, perhaps, a distinctively didactic character. Authorities upon American history were cited, but little work on the part of the students seems to have been done, apart from attendance upon the lecture course. Mr. GREENE's lectures were delivered first in the spring of 1872. At the time of Professor TYLER's appointment no department of American history existed in any university in the country; but it was the strong conviction of the new incumbent of this chair at Cornell that the time had come when the claims of our own national history were to be more distinctly recognized in the arrangement of historical instruction in American universities. This conviction has since been abundantly justified, not only by the steady growth of the new department here, but by, the fact that the example thus set by Cornell has been followed by many other universities, with the probability that it will in the course of time be followed by them all.
In the study of American history, Professor TYLER holds that while the method should be thoroughly scientific its object should be practical. He says: "To this extent I believe in history with a tendency. My interest in our own past is chiefly derived from my interest in our own present and future, and I teach American history, not so much to make historians as to make citizens and good leaders for the State and Nation. From this point of view I decided upon the selection of political topics for special study. At present I should describe them as follows: The native races, especially the mound builders and the North American Indians; the pre-Columbian discoveries; the origin and enforcement of England's claim to North America, as against competing European nations; the motives and methods of English colony-planting in America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; the development of ideas and institutions in the American colonies with particular reference to religion, education, industry and civil freedom; the grounds of intercolonial isolation and intercolonial fellowship; the causes and progress of the movement for colonial independence; the history of the formation of the national constitution; the establishment and growth of political parties under the constitution ; the history of slavery as a factor in American politics, culminating in the civil war." Professor TYLER emphasizes the use of the historical library by the students.
On June 18, 1891, it was resolved by the trustees that steps be taken for the establishment of a Department of History, Political and Social Science, and General Jurisprudence in Cornell University. Professor Charles Kendall ADAMS of the University of Michigan was engaged as lecturer on the constitutional history of Europe, and Professor Herbert TUTTLE as non-resident lecturer on international law for two years, his duties to consist of a course of lectures to be delivered during one term, of three months, in each year. At a subsequent meeting, Professor Henry C. ADAMS of the University of Michigan was elected professor of political economy for one year. These were the preliminary steps taken in President WHITE's absence, but upon his recommendation, to enlarge and give efficiency to the proposed department.
Professor ADAMS was the successor of President WHITE in the University of Michigan. An industrious, laborious scholar, systematic in work, his instruction exhibited these characteristics. The following courses in history were arranged:
1. General history, ancient, medieval and modern, with special reference to the political and social development of the leading nations.
2. The constitutional history of England, as that which has most strongly influenced our own.
3. The comparative, constitutional and legislative history of various modern states, as eliciting facts and principles of use in solving American problems.
4. The history, political, social and constitutional, of the United States, with a systematic effort to stimulate the students to original research into the sources of our national history.
5. The philosophy of history as shown by grouping the facts and thoughts elicited in these various courses.
The field of instruction assigned to Professor TUTTLE was enlarged to embrace theoretical and systematic politics. Under theoretical politics were treated primitive societies, and under systematic politics, the States in their constitutional organization, legislation, administration, and civil-service methods, justice, revenue, military system and a comparative study of state governments. It was the purpose to make the students acquainted in a scientific sense with the true principles of state organization and practice, as well as with the existing institutions of the great civilized states. Under international law, the history and literature of the law of nations, the rules of war, neutrality, prizes, embassy, forms of diplomacy, the history of American diplomacy, together with discussions of some of the more famous international controversies in which the United States have been engaged, were treated. It was the design that these two courses in theoretical and systematic politics, and in international law should be given in successive years.
The subject of American law and jurisprudence in the proposed course was assigned to Professor WILSON.
Systematic instruction in political economy with the aid of text-books was given by Professor WILSON, and lectures on the science of finance, embracing a study of the comparative financial administration of the various constitutional nations, and of the various sources of public revenue; were given by Dr. Henry C. ADAMS.
General history was treated in three periods of Greek and Roman, medieval and modern by President WHITE, Professor C. K. ADAMS, Assistant-Professor PERKINS and Instructor BURR. In 1883, Professor TUTTLE was made associate-professor of the history and theory of politics and of international law; in 1887, professor of political and municipal institutions and international law, and, upon the formation of the President White School of History and Political Science in 1890, professor of modern history; Assistant-Professor BURR was made associate-professor, and later of ancient and medieval history; and soon after, Professor Dr. J. W. JENKS was appointed professor of political and social institutions and of international law.
Upon the election of President ADAMS to the presidency, he assumed also the professorship of history. Extended courses of lectures were given by him upon the theories and methods of English government, the political history of England since the Napoleonic wars, the rise of Prussia, the political and social history of Europe during the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the period following the French Revolution.
President ADAMS retained the position of professor of history until the close of the year 1888-89, when the increasing executive duties which devolved upon him caused him to resign this position. During the year 1887-88 Assistant Professor Horatio S. WHITE gave instruction in history in branches in which instruction had been given previously by President WHITE.
President WHITE's interest in everything that concerned the whole being of society led him to the study of sociology and in his final report he recommended a course of practical instruction calculated to fit young men to discuss intelligently such important social questions as the best methods of dealing practically with pauperism, intemperance, crime of various degrees and among persons of various ages, insanity, idiocy and the like. This was one of those germ ideas which the president presented in the original "plan of organization," which it was impossible to realize for many years.
In pursuance of this suggestion Mr. Frank B. SANBORN, who had been for many years Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Charities and of the American Social Science Association, was engaged to deliver a series of lectures annually upon the subjects here presented. He arranged also visits on the part of his students to the various State charitable institutions in the vicinity, to the Reformatory in Elmira, the insane asylum at Ovid, and the State Prison in Auburn. The attention of the students was thus called to the great need of legislation in behalf of the unfortunate classes and to the history of previous experiments in ameliorating their condition, and to the best methods of accomplishing the highest philanthropic purposes.
The establishment of a course in journalism in the university was a favorite idea of President WHITE. Recognizing the power of the press, he believed that it would be wise to extend facilities to students to prepare directly for the profession of journalism. In pursuance of his plan, courses of lectures were delivered at different times in the university. Professor FISKE, who had been devoted to journalism for a number of years, delivered a course of lectures mainly upon the practical side of the journalist's profession. He discussed the arrangement of the matter in the newspaper and incidentally reviewed in a very suggestive way the methods of the leading journals; the special qualities and gifts of different men; the place of editorial comment; correspondence; foreign and local news in a popular journal. The Honorable James BROOKS delivered four lectures, beginning May 25, 1880, based upon his own extended and successful experience in newspaper life. Mr. Charles E. FITCH delivered a course of five lectures in May, 1886, devoted mainly to the history of journalism in this country. Later, Professor Brainard Gardner SMITH added to his regular duties a course in journalism in which, with the practical experience of a newspaper man, he sought to discuss the methods of a metropolitan daily and to give the students of his class practical drill in reporting actual and fictitious events. Members of the editorial boards of the college papers took great interest in these exercises. These young newspaper men not only used all the advantages placed at their disposal, but they published in the press of which they were correspondents a description of the system here in vogue. In consequence, widespread comment and discussion were aroused upon the possibility of successful instruction in journalism. On one side, it was held with great truth that the preparation of a journalist consisted primarily in the symmetrical development of all his powers; and secondly, in an intelligent acquaintance with the subjects discussed in the press, such as history, political economy, sociology, political institutions and constitutional law. It was urged still further that journalism was a craft, which could only be attained by practice, by experience in the various branches of a newspaper office. Many graduates of the university who had attained prominence as editors of leading journals in New York expressed this view. The relation of journalism to rhetoric and composition was maintained by some. It was thought that the power to write interestingly and graphically might be acquired by special training in the university, and the student be thus prepared to enter intelligently upon the practice of his profession. The demand for instruction in work in definite subjects, and the limited time available for essential studies, led to the practical abandonment of this experiment.
From the foundation of the university until the year 1880, there was no separate department of political science. Instruction in the subjects now embraced in that department was in the hands, so far as the resident force of instruction was concerned, of Dr. William D. WILSON, professor of moral and intellectual philosophy, who delivered a course of lectures on political economy one term each year. He published in 1875, chiefly for the use of his class in political economy, a treatise entitled, "First Principles of Political Economy with reference to Statesmanship and Progress of Civilization." In and after the years 1875-76, Dr. WILSON delivered also, one term each year, a course of lectures on the constitution of the United States, and American jurisprudence, this course taking the place of lectures on constitutional law, that had been delivered from 1868 to 1875 by non-resident Professor Theodore W. DWIGHT of New York city.
The department may be said to have been organized in 1881 when a four years' course in history and political science was established, leading to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In 1883, Professors ADAMS and TUTTLE were made resident associate professors of political economy and political science respectively, and the work of the department was enlarged to include additional courses in systematic politics, in public finance, and further, in 1884, courses in practical economic questions. During the year 1884, Mr. Ellis H. ROBERTS delivered a course of lectures on the tariff, which were published the next year in book form, under the title, "Government Revenue."
In the years 1885 and 1886 courses of lectures on diplomacy and international law were delivered by the Hon. Eugene SCHUYLER, which were published in 1886 under the title of "American Diplomacy and the Furtherance of Commerce." The same year Professor Henry C. ADAMS published his book on "Public Debts: A Study in the Science of Finance." Dr. WILSON was elected professor emeritus at the close of this year (1885-86). In 1887, the work in history and political science was grouped under the title of the President White School of History and Political Science, and in accordance with the conditions of the-organization of the school, a fellowship in political and social science was established.
Work in social science was begun in 1887 by Mr. Frank B. SANBORN, who gave a terms lectures each year on problems in social science, which lectures were supplemented by class visits to various charitable, penal and reformatory institutions in the vicinity of Ithaca. This work was kept up by Mr. SANBORN until the year 1889, after which time for two years somewhat similar work was carried on by Professor C. A. COLLIN.
In 1887, Professor H. C. ADAMS, all of whose time was required at the University of Michigan, gave up his work at Cornell, and the following year work in political economy was given by Mr. Frank H. HODDER. Professor TUTTLE was made professor of the history of political and municipal institutions and of international law. In 1888, Professor E. Benjamin ANDREWS was appointed professor of political economy and finance, but resigned after one years work to accept the presidency of Brown University. During his years residence he had printed outlines of his course of lectures for the use of students, which were afterwards gathered into book form under the title of "Institutes of Economics." Mr. HODDER again took charge of the work in economics for one year, when, in 1890, Professor J. Lawrence LAUGHLIN was appointed professor of political economy and finance, and the work of the department was further strengthened by the appointment of A. C. MILLER as associate professor of political economy and finance. At this time, too, graduate work in the department was strengthened by the establishment of two fellowships .In 1881, Professor TUTTLE, having been made professor of modern European history, gave up the work in political science. Professor J. W. JENKS was called to a chair of political, municipal and social institutions to do this work and that formerly done by Professors SANBORN and COLLIN.
In 1892, Professors LAUGHLIN and MILLER resigning to accept positions in Chicago University, the departments of economics and finance and political and social institutions were combined into, one, with a teaching force consisting of Professor JENKS, Associate Professor Edward A. ROSS, Assistant Professor Walter F. WILLCOX and Dr. Charles H. HULL, Professor JENKS being granted leave of absence for the year. In 1893 Professor ROSS resigned to accept a position at Leland Stanford, Jr., University. Dr. HULL was promoted to an assistant professorship, and Dr. L. S. MERRIAM was appointed instructor in political economy, the department now having four men whose full time was given to the work. The sad accident by which Dr. MERRIAM lost his life by drowning in Cayuga Lake checked the work of the department in part, but most of Dr. MERRIAM's work was carried on by Professor HULL and the fellows in the department, Messrs. T. F. CARVER and E. M. WILSON.
In the spring of 1894 Mr. Frank FETTER was appointed instructor in political economy. Though the work of the department is conducted as a unit, so far as it is practicable, each of the different teachers devotes his time to some special branch of the work. Professor JENKS gives his time chiefly to the work in political science and politics; Professor WILLCOX has charge especially of that in social science and statistics; while Professor HULL and Dr. FETTER conduct, in the main, the work in political economy and finance. In the year 1893-94 a new course in the mathematical methods of investigation in economic and social science was instituted by Professor OLIVER for the especial advantage of advanced students who had had good mathematical training. The department is further strengthened by the work in international law and jurisprudence, and in constitutional law, given by Professors HUFFCUT and HUTCHINS of the law school.
History of Cornell - Chapter XIV
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